(portrait)

Edward K. Marks

Last updated 18 Nov 2021 in Spear–Johnson Family.

Individual

Born: 12 Nov 1882 in , , , Russia

Died: 3 Mar 1963

Father: Michael Marks (1856 – 1941)

Mother: Lottie Schmetgall (1851 – 1924)

Supporting evidence for:
name

birth-arthur-marks-1905: Birth information card for Arthur C. Marks (1905); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, birth card number 19029, unspecified authority; privately held

Comment: Source implies name (Edward Marks).

citizenship-certificate-edward-marks-1950: Certificate of Citizenship for Edward Marks; United States Department of Justice, District of Columbia, certificate number A-200131, application numbers 1600-16614 and 1600-78799, certificate issued 30 Jan 1950 [This is a certificate proving citizenship, not naturalization.]

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #2, Image #2.

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks) in message #2 and name (Edward Marks Sr.) in image #2.

marriage-marks-swanson-1914: Certificate of marriage for Edward Marks and Hattie Maria Swanson (1914); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, unknown registration number or filing date; photocopy, privately held [Though signed by a Lutheran pastor, this form appears to be a standard form supplied by the county, with no overt religious details.]

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

memorialcard-edward-marks-1963: Memorial card (funeral program) for Edward Marks (1963); photocopy, privately held

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918: Draft registration card for Edward Marks (1918); U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, database with images, Ancestry (https://ancestry.com: accessed before 2018) > “Minnesota > Otter Tail County > 1 > Draft Card M” image 63; citing “World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, M1509, 4,582 rolls, imaged from Family History Library microfilm”

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

periodical-northwest-weddings-1904: "Northwest Weddings | Detroit, Minn.," The Minneapolis Journal (Minneapolis, Minnesota), 24 Nov 1904, p. 11, col. 5; image copy from Newspapers.com (http://newspapers.com) : accessed 30 Apr 2018. [Detroit, Minnesota is now known as Detroit Lakes.]

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

birth-harry-marks-1908: Record of birth for Harry William Marks (1908); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, record number 1908-19101, registered number 35; State of Minnesota Division of Vital Statistics, filed 2 Mar 1909; privately held

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

birth-pearl-marks-1918: Certificate of birth for Pearl Eileen Marks (1918); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, Birth Record J, page 62, section 1228, Clerk of the District Court (Seventh Judicial District), filed 11 Sep 1918; certified copy generated 2 February 1962; privately held

Comment: Source includes name (Ed Marks).

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Line 26, dwelling 28

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source includes name (Edward K. Marks).

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a: 1940 U.S. Census, population schedule, California, Los Angeles County, San Antonio Township, enumeration district 19-629, sheet 5A; 1940 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before Aug 2018) > "California > Los Angeles > San Antonio > 19-629" image 9; citing “Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA microfilm publication T627, roll 249 (of 4643), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 36, household 122

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks).

census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2: 1892 New York State Census, population schedule, New York, Kings County, Brooklyn, ward (AD) 17, election district 1, pages 2-3; New York, U.S., State Census, 1892, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 Dec 2020) > "Kings > Brooklyn Ward 17 > E.D. 01" image 2; citing “1892 New York State Census, New York State Education Department, Office of Cultural Education, New York State Library, Albany, NY” [Pages 2 and 3 are inconsistently numbered with the recto page marked as 2. Note that the page spreads before and after this one are numbered as expected, verso pages even-numbered, recto pages odd-numbered.]

Additional detail for reference: Page 2 or 3 [verso on spread], Column B, line 31

Comment: Source includes name (Edward Marks). (The first 'd' is written as a superscript above the 'w' -- spelling correction or style?)

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,
birth

birth-arthur-marks-1905: Birth information card for Arthur C. Marks (1905); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, birth card number 19029, unspecified authority; privately held

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (Rus [Russia]). See research notes for conflict details.

birth-harry-marks-1908: Record of birth for Harry William Marks (1908); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, record number 1908-19101, registered number 35; State of Minnesota Division of Vital Statistics, filed 2 Mar 1909; privately held

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (Russia). See research notes for conflict details.

birth-pearl-marks-1918: Certificate of birth for Pearl Eileen Marks (1918); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, Birth Record J, page 62, section 1228, Clerk of the District Court (Seventh Judicial District), filed 11 Sep 1918; certified copy generated 2 February 1962; privately held

Comment: Source includes age (35) and location (Russia). Using Pearl's birth date of 24 Aug 1918 gives a birth date range from 25 Aug 1882 to 24 Aug 1883. See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

Comment: Source includes date (<conflict>/<conflict>), age (<conflict>), and location (Russia). See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Line 26, dwelling 28

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (<conflict>). See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source includes age (37) and location (Russia {Poland}). Using his age and the official census date of 1 Jan 1920 gives a birth date range from 2 Jan 1882 to 1 Jan 1883.

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (<conflict>). See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a: 1940 U.S. Census, population schedule, California, Los Angeles County, San Antonio Township, enumeration district 19-629, sheet 5A; 1940 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before Aug 2018) > "California > Los Angeles > San Antonio > 19-629" image 9; citing “Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA microfilm publication T627, roll 249 (of 4643), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 36, household 122

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (<conflict>). See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

Comment: Source includes age (23) and location (<conflict>). Using the official census date of 1 Jun 1905 gives a birth date range from 2 Jun 1881 to 1 Jun 1882. See research notes for conflict details.

census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2: 1892 New York State Census, population schedule, New York, Kings County, Brooklyn, ward (AD) 17, election district 1, pages 2-3; New York, U.S., State Census, 1892, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 Dec 2020) > "Kings > Brooklyn Ward 17 > E.D. 01" image 2; citing “1892 New York State Census, New York State Education Department, Office of Cultural Education, New York State Library, Albany, NY” [Pages 2 and 3 are inconsistently numbered with the recto page marked as 2. Note that the page spreads before and after this one are numbered as expected, verso pages even-numbered, recto pages odd-numbered.]

Additional detail for reference: Page 2 or 3 [verso on spread], Column B, line 31

Comment: Source includes age (<conflict>) and location (<conflict>). See research notes for conflict details.

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #2.

Comment: Source includes location (Danzig, Germany).

military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918: Draft registration card for Edward Marks (1918); U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, database with images, Ancestry (https://ancestry.com: accessed before 2018) > “Minnesota > Otter Tail County > 1 > Draft Card M” image 63; citing “World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, M1509, 4,582 rolls, imaged from Family History Library microfilm”

Comment: Source includes date (November 12 1882).

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,
death

memorialcard-edward-marks-1963: Memorial card (funeral program) for Edward Marks (1963); photocopy, privately held

Comment: Source includes date (March 3, 1963).

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,
father

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Lines 20,22, dwelling 53

Comment: Source identifies Edward Marks as a son of Michael Marks. The source does not provide sufficient evidence to denote the type of parent/child relationship.

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Image #2.

Comment: Source identifies Edward Marks as a child of Michael Marks. The source does not provide sufficient evidence to denote the type of parent/child relationship.

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,
mother

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Image #2.

Comment: Source identifies Edward Marks as a child of Lottie Schmetgall. The source does not provide sufficient evidence to denote the type of parent/child relationship.

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Family #1

Spouse/Partner: Emma Pauline Lemke (1883 – 1913)

Married: 24 Nov 1904 in Detroit, Becker County, Minnesota, United States

Supporting evidence for:
marriage

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Lines 26,27, dwelling 28

Comment: Source identifies Emma P. Marks as the wife of Edward Marks and the number of years married (5) for both. Using the official census date of 15 Apr 1910 gives a marriage date range from 16 Apr 1904 to 15 Apr 1905.

periodical-northwest-weddings-1904: "Northwest Weddings | Detroit, Minn.," The Minneapolis Journal (Minneapolis, Minnesota), 24 Nov 1904, p. 11, col. 5; image copy from Newspapers.com (http://newspapers.com) : accessed 30 Apr 2018. [Detroit, Minnesota is now known as Detroit Lakes.]

Comment: Source includes date (today [for a story published 24 Nov 1904]) and location (Loon Lake Church, Detroit, Minn.) of marriage of Edward Marks and Emma Lemke.

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Lines 21,22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source identifies Hattie M. Marks as the wife of Edward K. Marks.

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Lines 84,85, dwelling 45

Comment: Source identifies Hattie M. Marks as the wife of Edward Marks.

marriage-marks-swanson-1914: Certificate of marriage for Edward Marks and Hattie Maria Swanson (1914); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, unknown registration number or filing date; photocopy, privately held [Though signed by a Lutheran pastor, this form appears to be a standard form supplied by the county, with no overt religious details.]

Comment: Source includes location (Fergus Falls, Otter Tail County, Minn.) and date (19th day of October ... [19]14).

obituary-hattie-marks-1973: Obituary draft for Hattie Marie (Swanson) Marks (1973); by Charles Swanson, undated; privately held [This is a photocopy of the draft obituary for Hattie, written by her brother Charles Swanson.]

Comment: Source includes year (1914) of marriage between Ed Mark[s] and Hattie Marie Swanson.

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Child: Arthur Carl Marks (1905 – ?)

Child: Edward L. "Jr." Marks (1907 – ?)

Child: Harry William Marks (1908 – ?)

Child: ____ Marks (1910 – ?)

Child: Ada Marks (1911 – 1971)

Family #2

Spouse/Partner: Hattie Maria "Mimi" Swanson (1889 – 1973)

Married: 19 Oct 1914 in Fergus Falls, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Supporting evidence for:
marriage

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Lines 26,27, dwelling 28

Comment: Source identifies Emma P. Marks as the wife of Edward Marks and the number of years married (5) for both. Using the official census date of 15 Apr 1910 gives a marriage date range from 16 Apr 1904 to 15 Apr 1905.

periodical-northwest-weddings-1904: "Northwest Weddings | Detroit, Minn.," The Minneapolis Journal (Minneapolis, Minnesota), 24 Nov 1904, p. 11, col. 5; image copy from Newspapers.com (http://newspapers.com) : accessed 30 Apr 2018. [Detroit, Minnesota is now known as Detroit Lakes.]

Comment: Source includes date (today [for a story published 24 Nov 1904]) and location (Loon Lake Church, Detroit, Minn.) of marriage of Edward Marks and Emma Lemke.

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Lines 21,22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source identifies Hattie M. Marks as the wife of Edward K. Marks.

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Lines 84,85, dwelling 45

Comment: Source identifies Hattie M. Marks as the wife of Edward Marks.

marriage-marks-swanson-1914: Certificate of marriage for Edward Marks and Hattie Maria Swanson (1914); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, unknown registration number or filing date; photocopy, privately held [Though signed by a Lutheran pastor, this form appears to be a standard form supplied by the county, with no overt religious details.]

Comment: Source includes location (Fergus Falls, Otter Tail County, Minn.) and date (19th day of October ... [19]14).

obituary-hattie-marks-1973: Obituary draft for Hattie Marie (Swanson) Marks (1973); by Charles Swanson, undated; privately held [This is a photocopy of the draft obituary for Hattie, written by her brother Charles Swanson.]

Comment: Source includes year (1914) of marriage between Ed Mark[s] and Hattie Marie Swanson.

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Child: Clifford Leo Marks (1916 – 1964)

Child: Pearl Eileen Marks (1918 – 1971)

Miscellaneous Facts

Events

Burial: 6 Mar 1963 at Whittier, Los Angeles County, California, United States

Immigration: Bet 1 Jan 1887 and 31 May 1887 at , , , United States

Baptism: ((a second time) in the Lutheran Church (Missouri Synod)) Abt 1888 at New York, New York County, New York, United States

Citizenship: 25 Jul 1900

Cemetery: (Rose Hills Memorial Park) at Whittier, Los Angeles County, California, United States

Supporting evidence for:
events

memorialcard-edward-marks-1963: Memorial card (funeral program) for Edward Marks (1963); photocopy, privately held

Comment: Source includes location (Rose Hills Memorial Park [, Whittier, Los Angeles County, California]).

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

Comment: Source includes year of immigration to the United States (1887) and years in the U.S. (13). These are consistent. These two values, along with the date of the census (1 Jun 1900) suggest an immigration date range of 1 Jan 1887 to 31 May 1887.

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source includes date (<conflict>).

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #2.

Comment: Source indicates rough date (when he was 5 years old) suggesting an immigration date between 12 Nov 1887 and 11 Nov 1888.

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #2.

Comment: Source indicates rough date (when they arrived after immigrating), location (NYC) and church (Lutheran church, Missouri Synod). Source also indicates this a second baptism.

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

Comment: Source notes that Edward was a naturalized citizen of the United States by the census date of 1 Apr 1930.

citizenship-certificate-edward-marks-1950: Certificate of Citizenship for Edward Marks; United States Department of Justice, District of Columbia, certificate number A-200131, application numbers 1600-16614 and 1600-78799, certificate issued 30 Jan 1950 [This is a certificate proving citizenship, not naturalization.]

Comment: Source includes date (July 25, 1900) of original citizenship approval.

military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918: Draft registration card for Edward Marks (1918); U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, database with images, Ancestry (https://ancestry.com: accessed before 2018) > “Minnesota > Otter Tail County > 1 > Draft Card M” image 63; citing “World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, M1509, 4,582 rolls, imaged from Family History Library microfilm”

Comment: Source indicates Edward was a "Citizen by Fathers Naturalization Before Registrant's Majority." In most states prior to the 1970s the age of majority was 21. This indicates he acquired his citizenship before 12 Nov 1903.

memorialcard-edward-marks-1963: Memorial card (funeral program) for Edward Marks (1963); photocopy, privately held

Comment: Source includes location (Rose Hills Memorial Park [, Whittier, Los Angeles County, California]).

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Attributes

Residence: 16 Feb 1892 at Brooklyn, Kings County, New York, United States

Residence: Abt Apr 1897 at , , Minnesota, United States

Residence: 1 Jun 1900 at , Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (day laborer) 7 Jun 1905

Residence: 7 Jun 1905 at , Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (rural mail carrier) 1 Sep 1906 at Vergas, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (rural mail carrier) 25 Nov 1908

Occupation: (rural mail carrier) 15 Apr 1910

Residence: 15 Apr 1910 at Vergas, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Residence: 19 Oct 1914 at , Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (rural mail carrier) 12 Sep 1918

Occupation: (farmer) 1 Jan 1920

Residence: 1 Jan 1920 at Dora Township, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (farmer) 1 Apr 1930

Residence: 1 Apr 1930 at Dora Township, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, United States

Occupation: (grocery store operator)

Residence: 1 Apr 1935 at Fargo, Cass County, North Dakota, United States

Residence: 1 Apr 1940 at Florence, Los Angeles County, California, United States

Supporting evidence for:
attributes

census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2: 1892 New York State Census, population schedule, New York, Kings County, Brooklyn, ward (AD) 17, election district 1, pages 2-3; New York, U.S., State Census, 1892, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 Dec 2020) > "Kings > Brooklyn Ward 17 > E.D. 01" image 2; citing “1892 New York State Census, New York State Education Department, Office of Cultural Education, New York State Library, Albany, NY” [Pages 2 and 3 are inconsistently numbered with the recto page marked as 2. Note that the page spreads before and after this one are numbered as expected, verso pages even-numbered, recto pages odd-numbered.]

Additional detail for reference: Page 2 or 3 [verso on spread], Column B, line 31

Comment: Source includes census date (Feb. 16, 1892) and location (1st Election District of the 17th Ward of the City of [Brooklyn], County: Clay, State: New York).

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

Comment: Source includes date (6-7 Jun 1905), time in state (8y, 2m), and location (Altona, Otter Tail County, Minnesota).

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

Comment: Source includes census date (1 Jun 1900) and location (Town of Dora, County: Otter Tail, State: Minnesota).

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

Comment: Source includes date (6-7 Jun 1905) and occupation (day laborer).

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

Comment: Source includes date (6-7 Jun 1905) and location (Altona, Otter Tail County, Minnesota).

periodical-northwest-appointments-1906: “N. W. Appointments,” news; Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com: accessed 30 Apr 2018) > “United States of America > Minnesota > Minneapolis > The Minneapolis Journal > 1906 > 09 > 02” page 2; citing “The Minneapolis Journal (Minneapolis, Minnesota), 2 Sep 1906 (Sunday), page 2, column 4”

Comment: Source includes effective date (Sept. 1 [, 1906]), occupation ([mail carrier is impliit by being in this article]), and town (Vergas) under the Rural Carriers section (about mid-paragraph).

birth-harry-marks-1908: Record of birth for Harry William Marks (1908); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, record number 1908-19101, registered number 35; State of Minnesota Division of Vital Statistics, filed 2 Mar 1909; privately held

Comment: Source includes occupation (Mail Carrier) on Harry's birth date (Nov 25, 1908).

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Line 26, dwelling 28

Comment: Source includes census date (15 Apr 1910) and occupation (Mail Carrier / Rural Route).

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Line 26, dwelling 28

Comment: Source includes census date (15 Apr 1910) and location (Vergas Village, County: Otter Tail, State: Minnesota).

marriage-marks-swanson-1914: Certificate of marriage for Edward Marks and Hattie Maria Swanson (1914); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, unknown registration number or filing date; photocopy, privately held [Though signed by a Lutheran pastor, this form appears to be a standard form supplied by the county, with no overt religious details.]

Comment: Source includes location (Otter Tail County, Minn.) on marriage date (19th day of October ... [19]14).

military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918: Draft registration card for Edward Marks (1918); U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, database with images, Ancestry (https://ancestry.com: accessed before 2018) > “Minnesota > Otter Tail County > 1 > Draft Card M” image 63; citing “World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, M1509, 4,582 rolls, imaged from Family History Library microfilm”

Comment: Source includes date (12 Sep 1918), occupation (mail carrier), and location (Vergas, Otter Tail, Minn).

obituary-hattie-marks-1973: Obituary draft for Hattie Marie (Swanson) Marks (1973); by Charles Swanson, undated; privately held [This is a photocopy of the draft obituary for Hattie, written by her brother Charles Swanson.]

Comment: Source includes year (1914) and occupation (rural mail carrier).

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source includes census date (1 Jan 1920) and occupation (Farmer).

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

Comment: Source includes census date (1 Jan 1920) and location (Dora Township, County: Otter Tail, State: Minnesota).

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

Comment: Source includes census date (1 Apr 1930) and occupation (Farmer).

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

Comment: Source includes census date (1 Apr 1930) and location (Dora Township, County: Otter Tail, State: Minnesota).

obituary-hattie-marks-1973: Obituary draft for Hattie Marie (Swanson) Marks (1973); by Charles Swanson, undated; privately held [This is a photocopy of the draft obituary for Hattie, written by her brother Charles Swanson.]

Additional detail for reference: Obituary text.

Comment: Source identifies Hattie Swanson and her husband Ed Marks as the owners of a small grocery store.

census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a: 1940 U.S. Census, population schedule, California, Los Angeles County, San Antonio Township, enumeration district 19-629, sheet 5A; 1940 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before Aug 2018) > "California > Los Angeles > San Antonio > 19-629" image 9; citing “Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA microfilm publication T627, roll 249 (of 4643), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 36, household 122

Comment: Source includes date (1 Apr 1935) and location (Moorhead, Clay County, Minnesota).

census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a: 1940 U.S. Census, population schedule, California, Los Angeles County, San Antonio Township, enumeration district 19-629, sheet 5A; 1940 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before Aug 2018) > "California > Los Angeles > San Antonio > 19-629" image 9; citing “Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA microfilm publication T627, roll 249 (of 4643), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 36, household 122

Comment: Source includes date (1 Apr 1940) and location (Florence, Los Angeles, California).

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General Notes and Anecdotes

In 1900, the families of Emma and her (not yet) husband Edward were enumerated as, literally, next-door neighbors. [census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a]

Edward and Hattie operated a small grocery store called "Mark's Market" in Fargo, North Dakota, probably in the 1930's, before moving to California. [obituary-hattie-marks-1973, misc-family-marks-market-coffee-label]

After moving from North Dakota to California, Edward worked in his son Clifford's bakery in Los Angeles for about 25 years. [interview-<private>-2007-a]

Supporting evidence for:
general notes

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

misc-marks-market-coffee-label: Unused coffee package label for Mark’s Market brand coffee; privately held

interview-<private>-2007-a: Email conversation with <private>, 18-21 Jun 2007; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #6.

obituary-hattie-marks-1973: Obituary draft for Hattie Marie (Swanson) Marks (1973); by Charles Swanson, undated; privately held [This is a photocopy of the draft obituary for Hattie, written by her brother Charles Swanson.]

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Research Notes (Conflicts/Spelling/Followup)

CONFLICTS

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The birth certificate of his son, Arthur, gives an age of (23), which, when applied to Arthur's birth date of 4 Oct 1905, gives a birth date range from 5 Oct 1881 to 4 Oct 1882. [birth-arthur-marks-1905]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The birth certificate of his son, Harry, gives an age of (27), which, when applied to the Harry's birth date of 25 Nov 1908, gives a birth date range from 26 Nov 1880 to 25 Nov 1881. [birth-harry-marks-1908]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1892 New York Census gives an age of (11), which, when applied to the offical census date of 16 Feb 1892, gives a birth date range from 17 Feb 1880 to 16 Feb 1881. [census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1900 U.S. Census gives an explicit birth date (Dec 1880) and an age (19). When applied to the official census date of 1 Jun 1900, the age gives a birth date range of 2 June 1880 to 1 June 1881, so the record is internally consistent, but still in conflict. (Note that the value of 19 appears to be a correction, replacing a value of 20, which still conflicts. The presence of numerous such corrections on the page, including everyone in this dwelling, suggest an enumerator error.) [census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1910 U.S. Census gives an age of (28), which, when applied to the offical census date of 15 Apr 1910, gives a birth date range from 16 Apr 1881 to 15 Apr 1882. [census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1930 U.S. Census gives an age of (46), which, when applied to the offical census date of 1 Apr 1930, gives a birth date range from 2 Apr 1883 to 1 Apr 1884. [census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1905 Minnesota Census gives an age of (23), which, when applied to the offical census date of 1 Jun 1905, gives a birth date range from 2 June 1881 to 1 June 1882. (The date is run through with a line, but this appears to be the result of record-keeping, not a correction or deletion.) [census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5]

Birth Date: This database uses 12 Nov 1882. The 1940 U.S. Census gives an age of (55), which, when applied to the offical census date of 1 Apr 1940, gives a birth date range from 2 April 1884 to 1 April 1885. [census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a]

Birth Location: This database uses Russia. The 1910 U.S. Census records this as "Ger - German" which presumably is an ethnic claim to being German. [census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a]

Birth Location: This database uses Russia. The 1930 and 1940 U.S. Censuses, the 1892 New York Census, and the 1905 Minnesota Census, use Poland. However, Poland did not exist between 1779 (when it was finally, and fully, partioned between other powers) and 1918 (when the Second Polish Republic was founded). During the early- to mid-1800s there was a (for a while) semi-autonomous area of Russia known as Congress Poland that was in the same general area. [census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b, census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a, census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2, census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5]

Birth Location: This database uses Russia. An interview with his grand-daughter suggests Danzig, Germany, noting "it was called a free city." However in 1882, Danzig was a seaport of the Prussian province of West Prussia. Prussia became one of the founding kingdoms of the German Empire in 1871, which lasted until the establishment of the German Republic in 1918. The "Free City of Danzig" was not created until 1920 through the Treaty of Versailles. [interview-loretta-spear-2006]

Immigration Date: This database uses 1 Jan 1887 to 31 May 1887. The 1920 and 1930 U.S. Censuses indicates it was in 1889. [census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a, census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b]

Naturalization Date: This database does not use one. The 1920 U.S. Census indicates that Edward was naturalized in 1898. However, in that year he would have been 15 or 16, so could not legally be naturalized. It could, however, roughly correspond to when his father Michael filed first papers, but not Michael's grant of citizenship. [census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a]

Citizenship Date: This database uses 25 Jul 1900. A combination of Edward's WW1 draft registration (indicating he was naturalized when still a minor, by virtue of his father's naturalization) and the 1920 census (indicating his father was naturalized in 1901) indicates Edward was naturalized in 1901. [military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918, census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a]

FOLLOWUP

The birth date for Edward Marks has a lot of conflicts between sources. This may be due to his own uncertainty and the uncertainty of country boundaries in late 19th century Europe. (See "Notes About Poland" below.)

Family lore holds that Edward worked as a newsboy in New York City between his immigration about 1889, and the family's move to Minnesota around April 1897. The New York Census record shows he was in the city at the time, and of the right age to be a paperboy, but it is unlikely that any evidence will be found to otherwise corroborate the story. [census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2]

Edward may have been one of the signers of a 4 Jan 1905 petition to bring the proposal to incorporate Altona to a vote. It was voted on 21 Feb 1905 and all 26 voters of the village voted for incorporation. (The name was changed from Altona to Vergas in a vote on 6 Nov 1906, with a new electorate of 31, 27 for and 4 against.) (from History of Otter Tail County, Minnesota: Its People, Industries, and Institutions: With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genalogical Records of Many of the Old Families, V1, by John W. Mason (ed.), Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen, 1916, p. 254, PDF page 281)

The period during which he and Hattie ran the grocery store is unknown. However, his brother Leopold identified his occupation as a grocery store merchant in 1930. Was this for the same store? Since Edward define his occupation as farmer in 1930, this brings up the question of who actually owned the store, despite the sources that say Edward and Hattie owned it.

At least one family member has claimed Edward was Jewish, but I have found no evidence supporting that idea. Considering the Russian anti-Jewish pogroms of the early 1880s and the family's emmigration in the mid-to-late 1880s, this would be an interesting history. [interview-<private>-2007-a]

The contention that he was from Danzig reflects family lore that he always claimed to be German. Presumably this means ethnically German, since he admits to being born in Russia or Poland.. This confusion may have been due to the border changes over his lifetime, and/or his parent's nationality claims. It is potentially the case (though I have no hard evidince of this either) that the family was from Alt Danzig or Neu Danzig, both of which are ethnic German areas in Russia near the Black Sea.

One of two Vergas websites (https://www.vergasmn.com) has a history page that includes excerpts from A Collection of Memories from the Village of Vergas, by Rodney Hanson (1925-2017), and self-published on 1 Jan 2005. The relevant text on the web page is: "Rural free delivery began in 1907. Carriers from then until the present were George Etzell, 1st carrier, Route 1, retired 1924; Edward Marks, 1st carrier, Route 2, retired 1921; Eugene Clawiter, temporary carrier, Route 2, 1921-1922; George Edwards, carrier, Route 2, 1922-1954; and Lyle Priske, carrier, Route 1, 1925-1961." (Note that he was appointed to the route on 1 Sep 1906, 4 months before 1907.)

Notes About Poland

Poland did not exist as an autonomous country between 1795 and WWI. The former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was gradually carved it up between the empires of Russia, Prussia, and Austria between 1772 and 1795. Following a few more border changes, by 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, the area Congress Poland was created, not as a country, but a region of the former country, now under Russian control.

The new Congress Poland was, to begin with, a semi-autonomous region of Russia, and administrative records were largely written in Polish. However, an uprising in 1831 and another in 1863 prompted tighter Russian control and by 1868 any prior sense of autonomy was gone. Records from this time will be found in Russian.

The region was a land-locked area, split off from the Baltic Sea by Prussia to the north and west. In particular, the seaport of Gdañsk / Danzig was now in West Prussia. The Austro-Hungarian Empire bordered on the south.

This border situation was relatively stable until after WWI with the creation of the Republic of Poland. This area now included part of the former Congress Poland, along with parts of Prussia, Russia, and the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. It kept these borders until after WWII, though they were occupied by foreign powers during the war.

Supporting evidence for:
research notes

birth-arthur-marks-1905: Birth information card for Arthur C. Marks (1905); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, birth card number 19029, unspecified authority; privately held

birth-harry-marks-1908: Record of birth for Harry William Marks (1908); Otter Tail County, Minnesota, record number 1908-19101, registered number 35; State of Minnesota Division of Vital Statistics, filed 2 Mar 1909; privately held

census-us-1900-ps-mn-ottertail-156-4a: 1900 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 156, sheet 4A (form/penned) or page 137A (stamped); 1900 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 13 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0156" image 7; citing “Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, NARA microfilm publication T623 (1854 rolls), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1240779]

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 53

census-us-1910-ps-mn-ottertail-137-2a: 1910 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Vergas Village, enumeration district 137, sheet 2A (form/penned) or page 66A (stamped OR stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1910 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before 14 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Vergas > District 0137" image 3; citing “Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 714 (of 1784), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 1374727]

Additional detail for reference: Line 26, dwelling 28

census-us-1920-ps-mn-ottertail-132-1a: 1920 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 132, sheet 1A (form/penned) or page 171A (stamped); 1920 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 17 August 2018) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0132" image 1; citing “Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 847 (of 2076), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 22, dwelling 4

census-us-1930-ps-mn-ottertail-22-2b: 1930 U.S. Census, population schedule, Minnesota, Otter Tail County, Dora Township, enumeration district 56-22, sheet 2B (form/penned) or page 108B (stamp sequence, not visible on page); 1930 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 22 November 2020) > "Minnesota > Otter Tail > Dora > District 0022" image 4; citing “Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1111 (of 2667), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.” [FHL microfilm 2340846]

Additional detail for reference: Line 84, dwelling 45

census-us-1940-ps-ca-losangeles-629-5a: 1940 U.S. Census, population schedule, California, Los Angeles County, San Antonio Township, enumeration district 19-629, sheet 5A; 1940 United States Federal Census, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed before Aug 2018) > "California > Los Angeles > San Antonio > 19-629" image 9; citing “Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA microfilm publication T627, roll 249 (of 4643), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.”

Additional detail for reference: Line 36, household 122.

census-us-mn-1905-ottertail-altona-5: 1905 Minnesota State Census, Otter Tail County, Altona (Candor Township), sheet 5 (form) or page 602 (corner); Minnesota, U.S., Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 24 May 2007) > "1905 > Otter Tail, Part 1 – All Localities Except Fergus Falls" image 565; citing “Minnesota State Population Census Schedules, 1865-1905, roll 140, Minnesota Historical Society, 1977” [Some pages were filmed out-of-order.]

Additional detail for reference: Line 7, number of enumeration 167

census-us-newyork-1892-kings-17-1-2: 1892 New York State Census, population schedule, New York, Kings County, Brooklyn, ward (AD) 17, election district 1, pages 2-3; New York, U.S., State Census, 1892, database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 Dec 2020) > "Kings > Brooklyn Ward 17 > E.D. 01" image 2; citing “1892 New York State Census, New York State Education Department, Office of Cultural Education, New York State Library, Albany, NY” [Pages 2 and 3 are inconsistently numbered with the recto page marked as 2. Note that the page spreads before and after this one are numbered as expected, verso pages even-numbered, recto pages odd-numbered.]

Additional detail for reference: Page 2 or 3 [verso on spread], Column B, line 31

interview-loretta-spear-2006: Email conversation with Loretta Pearl (Johnson) Spear, 19 Aug 2006, includes physical notes sent by mail; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #2.

interview-<private>-2007-a: Email conversation with <private>, 18-21 Jun 2007; privately held

Additional detail for reference: Message #6.

military-draftreg-edward-marks-1918: Draft registration card for Edward Marks (1918); U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, database with images, Ancestry (https://ancestry.com: accessed before 2018) > “Minnesota > Otter Tail County > 1 > Draft Card M” image 63; citing “World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, M1509, 4,582 rolls, imaged from Family History Library microfilm”

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Sources

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